永利集团304com:python技巧分享,python数据类型

这是多少个密密麻麻文章,主要分享python的运用建议和本事,每一回分享3点,希望你能具有收获。

Python高手之路【二】python基本数据类型,python数据类型

1 怎么样创建钦命长度且有特定值的list

  • 不引入情势

list1 = [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]print list1# [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
  • 推荐介绍形式

list1 = [0] * 10print list1# [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]

实际上,第一种方法一看就不相符D中华VY(Don’t Repeat
Yourself)原则,稍微想想就清楚还大概有更典雅的做法。倘诺是元组呢?只必要将[0]变动就可以,千万不要忘记0前边的逗号。别的,这里不断协助数字,其实能够是随便对象组成的list大概tuple。比方:

class User: passuser_list = [User()] * 10

一:数字 int

int(整型):

  在三12个人机器上,整数的位数为叁十个人,取值范围为-2**31~2**31-1,即-2147483648~2147483647
  在六十四个人系统上,整数的位数为六10位,取值范围为-2**63~2**63-1,即-9223372036854775808~9223372036854775807

永利集团304com 1

class int(object):
    """
    int(x=0) -> int or long
    int(x, base=10) -> int or long

    Convert a number or string to an integer, or return 0 if no arguments
    are given.  If x is floating point, the conversion truncates towards zero.
    If x is outside the integer range, the function returns a long instead.

    If x is not a number or if base is given, then x must be a string or
    Unicode object representing an integer literal in the given base.  The
    literal can be preceded by '+' or '-' and be surrounded by whitespace.
    The base defaults to 10.  Valid bases are 0 and 2-36.  Base 0 means to
    interpret the base from the string as an integer literal.
    >>> int('0b100', base=0)
    """
    def bit_length(self): 
        """ 返回表示该数字的时占用的最少位数 """
        """
        int.bit_length() -> int

        Number of bits necessary to represent self in binary.
        >>> bin(37)
        '0b100101'
        >>> (37).bit_length()
        """
        return 0

    def conjugate(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ 返回该复数的共轭复数 """
        """ Returns self, the complex conjugate of any int. """
        pass

    def __abs__(self):
        """ 返回绝对值 """
        """ x.__abs__() <==> abs(x) """
        pass

    def __add__(self, y):
        """ x.__add__(y) <==> x+y """
        pass

    def __and__(self, y):
        """ x.__and__(y) <==> x&y """
        pass

    def __cmp__(self, y): 
        """ 比较两个数大小 """
        """ x.__cmp__(y) <==> cmp(x,y) """
        pass

    def __coerce__(self, y):
        """ 强制生成一个元组 """ 
        """ x.__coerce__(y) <==> coerce(x, y) """
        pass

    def __divmod__(self, y): 
        """ 相除,得到商和余数组成的元组 """ 
        """ x.__divmod__(y) <==> divmod(x, y) """
        pass

    def __div__(self, y): 
        """ x.__div__(y) <==> x/y """
        pass

    def __float__(self): 
        """ 转换为浮点类型 """ 
        """ x.__float__() <==> float(x) """
        pass

    def __floordiv__(self, y): 
        """ x.__floordiv__(y) <==> x//y """
        pass

    def __format__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        pass

    def __getattribute__(self, name): 
        """ x.__getattribute__('name') <==> x.name """
        pass

    def __getnewargs__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ 内部调用 __new__方法或创建对象时传入参数使用 """ 
        pass

    def __hash__(self): 
        """如果对象object为哈希表类型,返回对象object的哈希值。哈希值为整数。在字典查找中,哈希值用于快速比较字典的键。两个数值如果相等,则哈希值也相等。"""
        """ x.__hash__() <==> hash(x) """
        pass

    def __hex__(self): 
        """ 返回当前数的 十六进制 表示 """ 
        """ x.__hex__() <==> hex(x) """
        pass

    def __index__(self): 
        """ 用于切片,数字无意义 """
        """ x[y:z] <==> x[y.__index__():z.__index__()] """
        pass

    def __init__(self, x, base=10): # known special case of int.__init__
        """ 构造方法,执行 x = 123 或 x = int(10) 时,自动调用,暂时忽略 """ 
        """
        int(x=0) -> int or long
        int(x, base=10) -> int or long

        Convert a number or string to an integer, or return 0 if no arguments
        are given.  If x is floating point, the conversion truncates towards zero.
        If x is outside the integer range, the function returns a long instead.

        If x is not a number or if base is given, then x must be a string or
        Unicode object representing an integer literal in the given base.  The
        literal can be preceded by '+' or '-' and be surrounded by whitespace.
        The base defaults to 10.  Valid bases are 0 and 2-36.  Base 0 means to
        interpret the base from the string as an integer literal.
        >>> int('0b100', base=0)
        # (copied from class doc)
        """
        pass

    def __int__(self): 
        """ 转换为整数 """ 
        """ x.__int__() <==> int(x) """
        pass

    def __invert__(self): 
        """ x.__invert__() <==> ~x """
        pass

    def __long__(self): 
        """ 转换为长整数 """ 
        """ x.__long__() <==> long(x) """
        pass

    def __lshift__(self, y): 
        """ x.__lshift__(y) <==> x<<y """
        pass

    def __mod__(self, y): 
        """ x.__mod__(y) <==> x%y """
        pass

    def __mul__(self, y): 
        """ x.__mul__(y) <==> x*y """
        pass

    def __neg__(self): 
        """ x.__neg__() <==> -x """
        pass

    @staticmethod # known case of __new__
    def __new__(S, *more): 
        """ T.__new__(S, ...) -> a new object with type S, a subtype of T """
        pass

    def __nonzero__(self): 
        """ x.__nonzero__() <==> x != 0 """
        pass

    def __oct__(self): 
        """ 返回改值的 八进制 表示 """ 
        """ x.__oct__() <==> oct(x) """
        pass

    def __or__(self, y): 
        """ x.__or__(y) <==> x|y """
        pass

    def __pos__(self): 
        """ x.__pos__() <==> +x """
        pass

    def __pow__(self, y, z=None): 
        """ 幂,次方 """ 
        """ x.__pow__(y[, z]) <==> pow(x, y[, z]) """
        pass

    def __radd__(self, y): 
        """ x.__radd__(y) <==> y+x """
        pass

    def __rand__(self, y): 
        """ x.__rand__(y) <==> y&x """
        pass

    def __rdivmod__(self, y): 
        """ x.__rdivmod__(y) <==> divmod(y, x) """
        pass

    def __rdiv__(self, y): 
        """ x.__rdiv__(y) <==> y/x """
        pass

    def __repr__(self): 
        """转化为解释器可读取的形式 """
        """ x.__repr__() <==> repr(x) """
        pass

    def __str__(self): 
        """转换为人阅读的形式,如果没有适于人阅读的解释形式的话,则返回解释器课阅读的形式"""
        """ x.__str__() <==> str(x) """
        pass

    def __rfloordiv__(self, y): 
        """ x.__rfloordiv__(y) <==> y//x """
        pass

    def __rlshift__(self, y): 
        """ x.__rlshift__(y) <==> y<<x """
        pass

    def __rmod__(self, y): 
        """ x.__rmod__(y) <==> y%x """
        pass

    def __rmul__(self, y): 
        """ x.__rmul__(y) <==> y*x """
        pass

    def __ror__(self, y): 
        """ x.__ror__(y) <==> y|x """
        pass

    def __rpow__(self, x, z=None): 
        """ y.__rpow__(x[, z]) <==> pow(x, y[, z]) """
        pass

    def __rrshift__(self, y): 
        """ x.__rrshift__(y) <==> y>>x """
        pass

    def __rshift__(self, y): 
        """ x.__rshift__(y) <==> x>>y """
        pass

    def __rsub__(self, y): 
        """ x.__rsub__(y) <==> y-x """
        pass

    def __rtruediv__(self, y): 
        """ x.__rtruediv__(y) <==> y/x """
        pass

    def __rxor__(self, y): 
        """ x.__rxor__(y) <==> y^x """
        pass

    def __sub__(self, y): 
        """ x.__sub__(y) <==> x-y """
        pass

    def __truediv__(self, y): 
        """ x.__truediv__(y) <==> x/y """
        pass

    def __trunc__(self, *args, **kwargs): 
        """ 返回数值被截取为整形的值,在整形中无意义 """
        pass

    def __xor__(self, y): 
        """ x.__xor__(y) <==> x^y """
        pass

    denominator = property(lambda self: object(), lambda self, v: None, lambda self: None)  # default
    """ 分母 = 1 """
    """the denominator of a rational number in lowest terms"""

    imag = property(lambda self: object(), lambda self, v: None, lambda self: None)  # default
    """ 虚数,无意义 """
    """the imaginary part of a complex number"""

    numerator = property(lambda self: object(), lambda self, v: None, lambda self: None)  # default
    """ 分子 = 数字大小 """
    """the numerator of a rational number in lowest terms"""

    real = property(lambda self: object(), lambda self, v: None, lambda self: None)  # default
    """ 实属,无意义 """
    """the real part of a complex number"""

int

int

2 怎么着连接字符串

  • 不推荐方法

def plus_str(): str_list = ['1'] * 10000 long_str = '' for str in str_list: long_str = long_str + str return long_str
  • 推荐介绍方法

def join_str(): str_list = ['1'] * 10000 return ''.join

动用加号格局连接字符串,功能底下,因为会再三的拷贝字符串和分配内部存款和储蓄器,比较耗费时间。不过使用join方式连接字符串,只须要分配一遍内部存款和储蓄器,并将全数待连接的字符串拷贝到内存空间,功用越来越高。在自身的微型Computer上,测验2个函数的耗费时间,当实行10000次时,前面三个耗费时间是后人约24倍,代码如下:

print timeit(stmt="plus_str()", setup="from __main__ import plus_str", number=10000)// 输出:42.7354210396print timeit(stmt="join_str()", setup="from __main__ import join_str", number=10000)// 输出: 1.78316799643

二:字符串 str

永利集团304com 2

class str(basestring):
    """
    str(object='') -> string

    Return a nice string representation of the object.
    If the argument is a string, the return value is the same object.
    """
    def capitalize(self):  
        """ 首字母变大写 """
        """
        S.capitalize() -> string

        Return a copy of the string S with only its first character
        capitalized.
        """
        return ""

    def center(self, width, fillchar=None):  
        """ 内容居中,width:总长度;fillchar:空白处填充内容,默认无 """
        """
        S.center(width[, fillchar]) -> string

        Return S centered in a string of length width. Padding is
        done using the specified fill character (default is a space)
        """
        return ""

    def count(self, sub, start=None, end=None):  
        """ 子序列个数 """
        """
        S.count(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int

        Return the number of non-overlapping occurrences of substring sub in
        string S[start:end].  Optional arguments start and end are interpreted
        as in slice notation.
        """
        return 0

    def decode(self, encoding=None, errors=None):  
        """ 解码 """
        """
        S.decode([encoding[,errors]]) -> object

        Decodes S using the codec registered for encoding. encoding defaults
        to the default encoding. errors may be given to set a different error
        handling scheme. Default is 'strict' meaning that encoding errors raise
        a UnicodeDecodeError. Other possible values are 'ignore' and 'replace'
        as well as any other name registered with codecs.register_error that is
        able to handle UnicodeDecodeErrors.
        """
        return object()

    def encode(self, encoding=None, errors=None):  
        """ 编码,针对unicode """
        """
        S.encode([encoding[,errors]]) -> object

        Encodes S using the codec registered for encoding. encoding defaults
        to the default encoding. errors may be given to set a different error
        handling scheme. Default is 'strict' meaning that encoding errors raise
        a UnicodeEncodeError. Other possible values are 'ignore', 'replace' and
        'xmlcharrefreplace' as well as any other name registered with
        codecs.register_error that is able to handle UnicodeEncodeErrors.
        """
        return object()

    def endswith(self, suffix, start=None, end=None):  
        """ 是否以 xxx 结束 """
        """
        S.endswith(suffix[, start[, end]]) -> bool

        Return True if S ends with the specified suffix, False otherwise.
        With optional start, test S beginning at that position.
        With optional end, stop comparing S at that position.
        suffix can also be a tuple of strings to try.
        """
        return False

    def expandtabs(self, tabsize=None):  
        """ 将tab转换成空格,默认一个tab转换成8个空格 """
        """
        S.expandtabs([tabsize]) -> string

        Return a copy of S where all tab characters are expanded using spaces.
        If tabsize is not given, a tab size of 8 characters is assumed.
        """
        return ""

    def find(self, sub, start=None, end=None):  
        """ 寻找子序列位置,如果没找到,返回 -1 """
        """
        S.find(sub [,start [,end]]) -> int

        Return the lowest index in S where substring sub is found,
        such that sub is contained within S[start:end].  Optional
        arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

        Return -1 on failure.
        """
        return 0

    def format(*args, **kwargs): # known special case of str.format
        """ 字符串格式化,动态参数,将函数式编程时细说 """
        """
        S.format(*args, **kwargs) -> string

        Return a formatted version of S, using substitutions from args and kwargs.
        The substitutions are identified by braces ('{' and '}').
        """
        pass

    def index(self, sub, start=None, end=None):  
        """ 子序列位置,如果没找到,报错 """
        S.index(sub [,start [,end]]) -> int

        Like S.find() but raise ValueError when the substring is not found.
        """
        return 0

    def isalnum(self):  
        """ 是否是字母和数字 """
        """
        S.isalnum() -> bool

        Return True if all characters in S are alphanumeric
        and there is at least one character in S, False otherwise.
        """
        return False

    def isalpha(self):  
        """ 是否是字母 """
        """
        S.isalpha() -> bool

        Return True if all characters in S are alphabetic
        and there is at least one character in S, False otherwise.
        """
        return False

    def isdigit(self):  
        """ 是否是数字 """
        """
        S.isdigit() -> bool

        Return True if all characters in S are digits
        and there is at least one character in S, False otherwise.
        """
        return False

    def islower(self):  
        """ 是否小写 """
        """
        S.islower() -> bool

        Return True if all cased characters in S are lowercase and there is
        at least one cased character in S, False otherwise.
        """
        return False

    def isspace(self):  
        """
        S.isspace() -> bool

        Return True if all characters in S are whitespace
        and there is at least one character in S, False otherwise.
        """
        return False

    def istitle(self):  
        """
        S.istitle() -> bool

        Return True if S is a titlecased string and there is at least one
        character in S, i.e. uppercase characters may only follow uncased
        characters and lowercase characters only cased ones. Return False
        otherwise.
        """
        return False

    def isupper(self):  
        """
        S.isupper() -> bool

        Return True if all cased characters in S are uppercase and there is
        at least one cased character in S, False otherwise.
        """
        return False

    def join(self, iterable):  
        """ 连接 """
        """
        S.join(iterable) -> string

        Return a string which is the concatenation of the strings in the
        iterable.  The separator between elements is S.
        """
        return ""

    def ljust(self, width, fillchar=None):  
        """ 内容左对齐,右侧填充 """
        """
        S.ljust(width[, fillchar]) -> string

        Return S left-justified in a string of length width. Padding is
        done using the specified fill character (default is a space).
        """
        return ""

    def lower(self):  
        """ 变小写 """
        """
        S.lower() -> string

        Return a copy of the string S converted to lowercase.
        """
        return ""

    def lstrip(self, chars=None):  
        """ 移除左侧空白 """
        """
        S.lstrip([chars]) -> string or unicode

        Return a copy of the string S with leading whitespace removed.
        If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.
        If chars is unicode, S will be converted to unicode before stripping
        """
        return ""

    def partition(self, sep):  
        """ 分割,前,中,后三部分 """
        """
        S.partition(sep) -> (head, sep, tail)

        Search for the separator sep in S, and return the part before it,
        the separator itself, and the part after it.  If the separator is not
        found, return S and two empty strings.
        """
        pass

    def replace(self, old, new, count=None):  
        """ 替换 """
        """
        S.replace(old, new[, count]) -> string

        Return a copy of string S with all occurrences of substring
        old replaced by new.  If the optional argument count is
        given, only the first count occurrences are replaced.
        """
        return ""

    def rfind(self, sub, start=None, end=None):  
        """
        S.rfind(sub [,start [,end]]) -> int

        Return the highest index in S where substring sub is found,
        such that sub is contained within S[start:end].  Optional
        arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

        Return -1 on failure.
        """
        return 0

    def rindex(self, sub, start=None, end=None):  
        """
        S.rindex(sub [,start [,end]]) -> int

        Like S.rfind() but raise ValueError when the substring is not found.
        """
        return 0

    def rjust(self, width, fillchar=None):  
        """
        S.rjust(width[, fillchar]) -> string

        Return S right-justified in a string of length width. Padding is
        done using the specified fill character (default is a space)
        """
        return ""

    def rpartition(self, sep):  
        """
        S.rpartition(sep) -> (head, sep, tail)

        Search for the separator sep in S, starting at the end of S, and return
        the part before it, the separator itself, and the part after it.  If the
        separator is not found, return two empty strings and S.
        """
        pass

    def rsplit(self, sep=None, maxsplit=None):  
        """
        S.rsplit([sep [,maxsplit]]) -> list of strings

        Return a list of the words in the string S, using sep as the
        delimiter string, starting at the end of the string and working
        to the front.  If maxsplit is given, at most maxsplit splits are
        done. If sep is not specified or is None, any whitespace string
        is a separator.
        """
        return []

    def rstrip(self, chars=None):  
        """
        S.rstrip([chars]) -> string or unicode

        Return a copy of the string S with trailing whitespace removed.
        If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.
        If chars is unicode, S will be converted to unicode before stripping
        """
        return ""

    def split(self, sep=None, maxsplit=None):  
        """ 分割, maxsplit最多分割几次 """
        """
        S.split([sep [,maxsplit]]) -> list of strings

        Return a list of the words in the string S, using sep as the
        delimiter string.  If maxsplit is given, at most maxsplit
        splits are done. If sep is not specified or is None, any
        whitespace string is a separator and empty strings are removed
        from the result.
        """
        return []

    def splitlines(self, keepends=False):  
        """ 根据换行分割 """
        """
        S.splitlines(keepends=False) -> list of strings

        Return a list of the lines in S, breaking at line boundaries.
        Line breaks are not included in the resulting list unless keepends
        is given and true.
        """
        return []

    def startswith(self, prefix, start=None, end=None):  
        """ 是否起始 """
        """
        S.startswith(prefix[, start[, end]]) -> bool

        Return True if S starts with the specified prefix, False otherwise.
        With optional start, test S beginning at that position.
        With optional end, stop comparing S at that position.
        prefix can also be a tuple of strings to try.
        """
        return False

    def strip(self, chars=None):  
        """ 移除两段空白 """
        """
        S.strip([chars]) -> string or unicode

        Return a copy of the string S with leading and trailing
        whitespace removed.
        If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.
        If chars is unicode, S will be converted to unicode before stripping
        """
        return ""

    def swapcase(self):  
        """ 大写变小写,小写变大写 """
        """
        S.swapcase() -> string

        Return a copy of the string S with uppercase characters
        converted to lowercase and vice versa.
        """
        return ""

    def title(self):  
        """
        S.title() -> string

        Return a titlecased version of S, i.e. words start with uppercase
        characters, all remaining cased characters have lowercase.
        """
        return ""

    def translate(self, table, deletechars=None):  
        """
        转换,需要先做一个对应表,最后一个表示删除字符集合
        intab = "aeiou"
        outtab = "12345"
        trantab = maketrans(intab, outtab)
        str = "this is string example....wow!!!"
        print str.translate(trantab, 'xm')
        """

        """
        S.translate(table [,deletechars]) -> string

        Return a copy of the string S, where all characters occurring
        in the optional argument deletechars are removed, and the
        remaining characters have been mapped through the given
        translation table, which must be a string of length 256 or None.
        If the table argument is None, no translation is applied and
        the operation simply removes the characters in deletechars.
        """
        return ""

    def upper(self):  
        """
        S.upper() -> string

        Return a copy of the string S converted to uppercase.
        """
        return ""

    def zfill(self, width):  
        """方法返回指定长度的字符串,原字符串右对齐,前面填充0。"""
        """
        S.zfill(width) -> string

        Pad a numeric string S with zeros on the left, to fill a field
        of the specified width.  The string S is never truncated.
        """
        return ""

    def _formatter_field_name_split(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        pass

    def _formatter_parser(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        pass

    def __add__(self, y):  
        """ x.__add__(y) <==> x+y """
        pass

    def __contains__(self, y):  
        """ x.__contains__(y) <==> y in x """
        pass

    def __eq__(self, y):  
        """ x.__eq__(y) <==> x==y """
        pass

    def __format__(self, format_spec):  
        """
        S.__format__(format_spec) -> string

        Return a formatted version of S as described by format_spec.
        """
        return ""

    def __getattribute__(self, name):  
        """ x.__getattribute__('name') <==> x.name """
        pass

    def __getitem__(self, y):  
        """ x.__getitem__(y) <==> x[y] """
        pass

    def __getnewargs__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        pass

    def __getslice__(self, i, j):  
        """
        x.__getslice__(i, j) <==> x[i:j]

                   Use of negative indices is not supported.
        """
        pass

    def __ge__(self, y):  
        """ x.__ge__(y) <==> x>=y """
        pass

    def __gt__(self, y):  
        """ x.__gt__(y) <==> x>y """
        pass

    def __hash__(self):  
        """ x.__hash__() <==> hash(x) """
        pass

    def __init__(self, string=''): # known special case of str.__init__
        """
        str(object='') -> string

        Return a nice string representation of the object.
        If the argument is a string, the return value is the same object.
        # (copied from class doc)
        """
        pass

    def __len__(self):  
        """ x.__len__() <==> len(x) """
        pass

    def __le__(self, y):  
        """ x.__le__(y) <==> x<=y """
        pass

    def __lt__(self, y):  
        """ x.__lt__(y) <==> x<y """
        pass

    def __mod__(self, y):  
        """ x.__mod__(y) <==> x%y """
        pass

    def __mul__(self, n):  
        """ x.__mul__(n) <==> x*n """
        pass

    @staticmethod # known case of __new__
    def __new__(S, *more):  
        """ T.__new__(S, ...) -> a new object with type S, a subtype of T """
        pass

    def __ne__(self, y):  
        """ x.__ne__(y) <==> x!=y """
        pass

    def __repr__(self):  
        """ x.__repr__() <==> repr(x) """
        pass

    def __rmod__(self, y):  
        """ x.__rmod__(y) <==> y%x """
        pass

    def __rmul__(self, n):  
        """ x.__rmul__(n) <==> n*x """
        pass

    def __sizeof__(self):  
        """ S.__sizeof__() -> size of S in memory, in bytes """
        pass

    def __str__(self):  
        """ x.__str__() <==> str(x) """
        pass

str

str

 字符串是 Python
中最常用的数据类型。我们可以利用引号,双引号,或三引号来创设字符串。

a = 'poe'
b = "bruce"
c = """Jacky Chen"""

3 如何联合字典

  • 不引入情势

dict1 = {'a': 1, 'b': 2, 'c': 3}dict2 = {'a': 4, 'b': 5, 'g': 6}dict1.updatemerged_dict = dict1print merged_dict# {'a': 4, 'c': 3, 'b': 5, 'g': 6}
  • 引进格局

dict1 = {'a': 1, 'b': 2, 'c': 3}dict2 = {'d': 4, 'f': 5, 'g': 6}merged_dict = dict(dict1, **dict2)print merged_dict# {'a': 1, 'c': 3, 'b': 2, 'd': 4, 'g': 6, 'f': 5}

前一种办法会将源字典dict1改造,有必然的副成效,借使不在乎源字典被退换,第一种形式更简美素佳儿(Friso)些。后一种方式不会修改源字典,未有副作用。借使有双重的key值,按从右到左的次第覆盖,比如:

dict1 = {'a': 1, 'b': 2, 'c': 3}dict2 = {'a': 4, 'b': 5, 'g': 6}merged_dict = dict(dict1, **dict2)print merged_dict# {'a': 4, 'c': 3, 'b': 5, 'g': 6}

使用侧边参数dict2的key值覆盖dict1的key值。通过内建函数dict,将2个字典作为参数字传送递给该函数,创设三个新字典。供给极其提出的是,第4个参数dict2内需加多2个星号,这里代表该参数是一个具名参数,而且类型是字典。因为dict函数创建字典时,能够承受多个参数,那是python函数补助可变参数的规定格式。

 1:字符串连接

方法一:join方法

1 a = ['a','b','c','d']
2 content = ''
3 content = ' '.join(a)
4 print(content)

主意二:用字符串的轮换占位符替换

1 a = ['a','b','c','d']
2 content = ''
3 content = '%s%s%s%s' % tuple(a)
4 print(content)

方法三:for循环

1 a = ['a','b','c','d']
2 content = ''
3 for i in a:
4     content += i
5 print(content)

潜心:方法三成效低,不引入应用!

缘由:在循环连接字符串的时候,他每一趟三番五次贰次,将要重复开荒空间,然后把字符串连接起来,再归入新的空中,再二次巡回,又要开辟新的空间,把字符串连接起来放入新的空间,如此频仍,内存操作相比频仍,每一趟都要总计内部存款和储蓄器空间,然后开拓内部存款和储蓄器空间,再自由内部存款和储蓄器空间,功效非常的低,你或者操作非常少的数量的时候看不出来,感到影响比相当的小,不过你境遇操作数据量比相当多的时候,这些方式就要退休了。

 2:字符串截取

作者们能够透过索引来提取想要获取的字符,能够把python的字符串也做为字符串的列表就更加好通晓

python的字串列表有2种取值顺序:

1是从左到右索引暗中认可0初始的,最大规模是字符串长度少1
s = ‘ilovepython’
s[0]的结果是i

2是从右到左索引私下认可-1最初的,最大面积是字符串起首
s = ‘ilovepython’
s[-1]的结果是n

上边那一个是获取贰个字符,假若您的莫过于要得到一段子串的话,能够用到变量[头下标:尾下标],就足以截取相应的字符串,当中下标是从0早先算起,能够是正数或负数,下标可感到空表示取到头或尾。

比如
s = ‘ilovepython’
s[1:5]的结果是love
当使用以冒号分隔的字符串,python重返一个新的对象,结果包括了以那对偏移标记的接连的剧情,左侧的启幕是满含了下面际,比方上边的结果包罗了s[1]的值l,而取到的最大范围不包罗上面界,就是s[5]的值p

注:s[1:5]款式截头不截尾

3:字符串替换

方法一:使用repalce方法

1 a = 'hello world'
2 b = a.replace('world','python')
3 print(b)

方式二:使用正则表达式

1 import re
2 a = 'hello world'
3 strinfo = re.compile('world')
4 b = strinfo.sub('python',a)
5 print(b)

4:字符串相比较

cmp方法比非常多个目的,并基于结果回到二个整数。cmp(x,y)假使X<
Y,再次来到值是负数 假使X>Y 再次回到的值为正数。

1 str1 = 'strch'
2 str2 = 'strchr'
3 print(cmp(str1,str2))
4 ## -1

5:字符串相加

作者们透过操作符号+来进展字符串的相加,可是提出仍然用其余的措施来开展字符串的拼凑,这样成效高点。
由来:在循环连接字符串的时候,他老是三翻五次一次,就要重复开拓空间,然后把字符串连接起来,再放入新的空中,再一次巡回,又要开垦新的空间,把字符串连接起来放入新的上空,如此频仍,内部存款和储蓄器操作相比频仍,每一次都要总计内部存款和储蓄器空间,然后开荒内部存款和储蓄器空间,再自由内存空间,成效相当低。

1 str1 = 'strch'
2 str2 = 'strchr'
3 print(str1+str2)
4 ## strchstrchr

6:字符串查找

python 字符串查找有4个措施,1 find,2 index措施,3 rfind方法,4
rindex方法。

方法一:find方法

1 info = 'abca'
2 print info.find('a')##从下标0开始,查找在字符串里第一个出现的子串,返回结果:0
3 
4 info = 'abca'
5 print info.find('a',1)##从下标1开始,查找在字符串里第一个出现的子串:返回结果3
6 
7 info = 'abca'
8 print info.find('333')##返回-1,查找不到返回-1

方法二:index方法

python
的index方法是在字符串里查找子串第2回出现的职位,类似字符串的find方法,可是比find方法更加好的是,假诺寻找不到子串,会抛出极度,实际不是回到-1

1 info = 'abca'
2 print info.index('a')
3 print info.index('33')

7:字符串分割

字符串分割,能够用split,rsplit方法,通过相应的条条框框来切割成生成列表对象

1 info = 'name:haha,age:20$name:python,age:30$name:fef,age:55'
2 content = info.split('$')
3 print content
4 ## ['name:haha,age:20', 'name:python,age:30', 'name:fef,age:55']

8:字符串反转

1 a = 'abcd'
2 b = a[::-1]##[::-1]通过步进反转
3 print b

9:字符串编码

 

10:字符串追加和东拼西凑

通过字符串的占位符来张开字符串的拼接

#1 元组拼接
m = 'python'
astr = 'i love %s' % m
print astr

#2 字符串的format方法
m = 'python'
astr = "i love {python}".format(python=m)
print astr

#3 字典格式化字符串
m = 'python'
astr = "i love %(python)s " % {'python':m}
print astr

11:字符串复制

#通过变量来进行赋值
fstr = 'strcpy'
sstr = fstr
fstr = 'strcpy2'
print sstr

12:字符串长度

#通过内置方法len()来计算字符串的长度,注意这个计算的是字符的长度。
aa = 'afebb'
bb = '你'
print len(aa)
print len(bb)

13:字符串大小写

#通过下面的upper(),lower()等方法来转换大小写
S.upper()#S中的字母大写 
S.lower() #S中的字母小写 
S.capitalize() #首字母大写 
S.istitle() #S是否是首字母大写的 
S.isupper() #S中的字母是否便是大写 
S.islower() #S中的字母是否全是小写 

14:字符串去空格

#通过strip(),lstrip(),rstrip()方法去除字符串的空格
S.strip()去掉字符串的左右空格
S.lstrip()去掉字符串的左边空格
S.rstrip()去掉字符串的右边空格

15:字符串其余措施

#字符串相关的其他方法:count(),join()方法等。
S.center(width, [fillchar]) #中间对齐
S.count(substr, [start, [end]]) #计算substr在S中出现的次数
S.expandtabs([tabsize]) #把S中的tab字符替换没空格,每个tab替换为tabsize个空格,默认是8个 
S.isalnum() #是否全是字母和数字,并至少有一个字符 
S.isalpha() #是否全是字母,并至少有一个字符 
S.isspace() #是否全是空白字符,并至少有一个字符
S.join()#S中的join,把列表生成一个字符串对象
S.ljust(width,[fillchar]) #输出width个字符,S左对齐,不足部分用fillchar填充,默认的为空格。
S.rjust(width,[fillchar]) #右对齐 
S.splitlines([keepends]) #把S按照行分割符分为一个list,keepends是一个bool值,如果为真每行后而会保留行分割符。
S.swapcase() #大小写互换 

 

三:列表 list

永利集团304com 3

class list(object):
    """
    list() -> new empty list
    list(iterable) -> new list initialized from iterable's items
    """
    def append(self, p_object): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ L.append(object) -- append object to end """
        pass

    def count(self, value): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ L.count(value) -> integer -- return number of occurrences of value """
        return 0

    def extend(self, iterable): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ L.extend(iterable) -- extend list by appending elements from the iterable """
        pass

    def index(self, value, start=None, stop=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """
        L.index(value, [start, [stop]]) -> integer -- return first index of value.
        Raises ValueError if the value is not present.
        """
        return 0

    def insert(self, index, p_object): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ L.insert(index, object) -- insert object before index """
        pass

    def pop(self, index=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """
        L.pop([index]) -> item -- remove and return item at index (default last).
        Raises IndexError if list is empty or index is out of range.
        """
        pass

    def remove(self, value): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """
        L.remove(value) -- remove first occurrence of value.
        Raises ValueError if the value is not present.
        """
        pass

    def reverse(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ L.reverse() -- reverse *IN PLACE* """
        pass

    def sort(self, cmp=None, key=None, reverse=False): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """
        L.sort(cmp=None, key=None, reverse=False) -- stable sort *IN PLACE*;
        cmp(x, y) -> -1, 0, 1
        """
        pass

    def __add__(self, y): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__add__(y) <==> x+y """
        pass

    def __contains__(self, y): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__contains__(y) <==> y in x """
        pass

    def __delitem__(self, y): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__delitem__(y) <==> del x[y] """
        pass

    def __delslice__(self, i, j): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """
        x.__delslice__(i, j) <==> del x[i:j]

                   Use of negative indices is not supported.
        """
        pass

    def __eq__(self, y): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__eq__(y) <==> x==y """
        pass

    def __getattribute__(self, name): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__getattribute__('name') <==> x.name """
        pass

    def __getitem__(self, y): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__getitem__(y) <==> x[y] """
        pass

    def __getslice__(self, i, j): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """
        x.__getslice__(i, j) <==> x[i:j]

                   Use of negative indices is not supported.
        """
        pass

    def __ge__(self, y): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__ge__(y) <==> x>=y """
        pass

    def __gt__(self, y): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__gt__(y) <==> x>y """
        pass

    def __iadd__(self, y): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__iadd__(y) <==> x+=y """
        pass

    def __imul__(self, y): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__imul__(y) <==> x*=y """
        pass

    def __init__(self, seq=()): # known special case of list.__init__
        """
        list() -> new empty list
        list(iterable) -> new list initialized from iterable's items
        # (copied from class doc)
        """
        pass

    def __iter__(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__iter__() <==> iter(x) """
        pass

    def __len__(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__len__() <==> len(x) """
        pass

    def __le__(self, y): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__le__(y) <==> x<=y """
        pass

    def __lt__(self, y): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__lt__(y) <==> x<y """
        pass

    def __mul__(self, n): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__mul__(n) <==> x*n """
        pass

    @staticmethod # known case of __new__
    def __new__(S, *more): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ T.__new__(S, ...) -> a new object with type S, a subtype of T """
        pass

    def __ne__(self, y): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__ne__(y) <==> x!=y """
        pass

    def __repr__(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__repr__() <==> repr(x) """
        pass

    def __reversed__(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ L.__reversed__() -- return a reverse iterator over the list """
        pass

    def __rmul__(self, n): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__rmul__(n) <==> n*x """
        pass

    def __setitem__(self, i, y): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__setitem__(i, y) <==> x[i]=y """
        pass

    def __setslice__(self, i, j, y): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """
        x.__setslice__(i, j, y) <==> x[i:j]=y

                   Use  of negative indices is not supported.
        """
        pass

    def __sizeof__(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ L.__sizeof__() -- size of L in memory, in bytes """
        pass

    __hash__ = None

list

list

 1:创造列表 

list1 = ['physics', 'chemistry', 1997, 2000];
list2 = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ];
list3 = ["a", "b", "c", "d"];

 与字符串的目录相同,列表索引从0早先。列表能够扩充截取、组合等

2:访谈列表

list1 = ['physics', 'chemistry', 1997, 2000];
list2 = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ];
print(list1[0])
print(list2[2:5])#截头不截尾
## physics
## [3, 4, 5]

3:append方法:在列表末尾增加新的靶子

aList = [123, 'xyz', 'zara', 'abc'];
aList.append( 2009 );
print "Updated List : ", aList;
## Updated List :  [123, 'xyz', 'zara', 'abc', 2009]

4:count方法:总括有些成分在列表中冒出的次数

aList = [123, 'xyz', 'zara', 123];
print(aList.count(123))
## 2

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